Pseudodistoma africanum

Millar, R. H. 1954
Phylum Chordata
Class Ascidiacea
Order Aplousobranchia
Family Pseudodistomidae
  • Large colonies consisting on single or multiple stalked conical to ovoid heads (35 mm long and 12 mm in diameter long distinctive stalk (35 mm long).
  • Colour vary from white to dark orange.
  • Zooids open individually on head only.
  • No sand particles visible on the surface of the head of the colony but sand visible externally on stalk.
  • Internally sand and / or shell fragments distributed to varying amounts (generally sparsely but occasional more dense).
  • Zooids (up to 17 mm long) with lobed siphons and branchial sac with 3 rows of stigmata with up to 18 stigmata per row.
  • Gonads in the long posterior abdomen (1-2 ova with up to 50 male follicles).
  • Larvae incubated in peribranchial cavity and also found in the test under the test surface.
  • Larvae with 3 adhesive organs each surrounded by elongated ampullae.
© 1998 Shirley Parker-Nance 0CDN6002Jlarva4.jpg © 2010 Shirley Parker-Nance 2010-10-10 23-56-18_0148.JPG © 2010 Shirley Parker-Nance 2010-10-10 23-58-50_0162.JPG © 2011 Shirley Parker-Nance 2011-04-24 12-17-34_0036.JPG © 2011 Shirley Parker-Nance 2011-04-24 12-25-02_0072.JPG

  • Millar, R. H. 1954 XXI - Pseudodistoma africanum sp. N. A new compound ascidian from South Africa7:128-132
  • Millar, R. H. 1962 Further descriptions of South African ascidians56:113-221
  • Monniot, C.; Monniot, F.; Griffiths, C. and Schleyer, M. 2001 Ascidians of South Africa.108:1-141
  • Shenkar, N.; Gittenberger, A.; Ruis, M.; Rocha, R. M.; Swalla, B.; et al. 2017 Ascidiacea World Database. Atriolum marinense Kott, 2001. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2019-03-12